1932, English

Above the City: The Legacy and Symbolism of ‘Lunch atop a Skyscraper’

Imagine a group of men, nonchalantly perched on a steel girder, high above the New York City streets, enjoying their lunch break. This seemingly implausible scene is the essence of the iconic photograph, “Lunch atop a Skyscraper.” This image, captured in 1932, has endured the test of time and remains a striking portrayal of audacity, camaraderie, and the fearless spirit of the American worker during one of the nation’s most challenging periods.

Lunch atop a Skycraper

“Lunch atop a Skyscraper” is a black and white photograph that depicts eleven construction workers taking a casual lunch break. They are seated in a line along a steel beam, their legs dangling 840 feet above the bustling city streets. There are no safety harnesses or nets, no signs of fear or hesitation. Instead, the men are seen with lunch pails and sandwich in hand, engrossed in conversation or lost in thought, seemingly unfazed by the dizzying heights.

The cityscape stretches out below them, a mixture of completed structures and other buildings under construction. The looming void below their feet is filled with the concrete jungle of Manhattan, with Central Park visible in the far distance. The photograph is a testament not just to these brave workers, but to the city that was rapidly rising around them, ready to touch the sky.

As we delve into this iconic image, we will explore its historical context, the men in the picture, the attributed photographer, and the lasting impact and symbolism of this memorable photograph. So, let’s journey back to 1932 and revisit the day when these men had their lunch break, quite literally, on top of the world.

Historical Context

To fully appreciate the significance of “Lunch atop a Skyscraper,” we need to rewind to the early 1930s. The United States, like much of the world, was in the grip of the Great Depression. Despite the economic hardship, one American city was reaching skyward with an ambitious construction project that would change its skyline forever. That city was New York, and the project was the Rockefeller Center.

John D. Rockefeller Jr., heir to the Rockefeller oil fortune, had envisioned a “city within a city.” This grand project was to serve as a beacon of hope and a symbol of resilience during an era defined by economic struggle. The construction of the Rockefeller Center, named after its benefactor, commenced in 1931. Over 40,000 workers were involved in the project, many of them immigrants, who saw it as a golden opportunity to earn a living during these trying times.

The centerpiece of this massive complex was the RCA (later GE) Building, a 70-story Art Deco skyscraper that would become one of the most recognized structures in New York City. Its construction was a marvel of engineering and human endeavor, a testament to the audacious spirit of the era. It was on this towering monument that the scene for “Lunch atop a Skyscraper” was set.

The photograph was taken on September 20, 1932, during the last months of construction of the RCA Building. The building was near completion, and the steelworkers were installing the final beams. These men, known as “high iron” workers, were part of a unique fraternity, their lives hanging on the steel structures they helped erect.

In this era of economic turmoil, the construction of the Rockefeller Center symbolized progress and hope. The project not only provided jobs for thousands but also symbolized the city’s and the nation’s determination to overcome adversity. The “Lunch atop a Skyscraper” photograph perfectly captured this sentiment, showing ordinary men in an extraordinary situation, quietly going about their business against the backdrop of the city they were helping to build.

The Day of the Photograph

The morning of September 20, 1932, began like any other for the steelworkers of the Rockefeller Center. As the sun peeked over the horizon, casting a warm glow on the city that never sleeps, these men ascended the skeletal framework of the nearly completed RCA Building. Their workplace was unlike any other – a steel maze hovering over Manhattan, a testament to human ingenuity and the unrelenting march towards progress.

As the workers moved rhythmically, riveting steel beams and tightening bolts, an unusual event was about to unfold. The photograph we now know as “Lunch atop a Skyscraper” was not a casual snapshot of the day-to-day life of these high iron workers. Instead, it was a pre-planned publicity effort to highlight the ongoing construction of the Rockefeller Center.

Charles C. Ebbets, the reputed photographer, had been hired to document the construction project. He, along with his team, decided to stage this daring photograph. A beam was maneuvered into place, 840 feet above the city streets, and a group of workers were directed to take their lunch break on it.

Charles C. Ebbets

The men, who were used to the dizzying heights and the perilous conditions of their jobs, complied willingly. They took their places on the beam, their legs dangling over the cityscape. Some chatted with their coworkers, some stared off into the distance, and others enjoyed their lunches, sandwiches held tightly in hand. The resulting image was a perfect blend of routine and audacity, a testament to the casual bravery of these workers.

Despite its staged nature, the photograph doesn’t diminish the reality of these workers’ lives or the risk they took every day on the job. Instead, it highlights their courage and their vital role in the city’s development. This snapshot of a moment in time has since become an enduring symbol of American resilience and the spirit of progress during the Great Depression. It tells a story of men unphased by danger, nonchalantly enjoying their lunch break in the sky, on top of the world they were helping to build.

The Workers

The men in the photograph “Lunch atop a Skyscraper” were part of a unique breed of workers known as “high iron” workers. Many of them were immigrants, hailing from Ireland, Italy, Canada, and other places around the globe, seeking a better life in America. They were the unsung heroes of the city’s vertical expansion, their work often going unnoticed by the populace walking the streets far below.

These workers, clad in overalls, caps, and boots, with tool belts slung around their waists, tackled the daunting task of transforming architectural blueprints into towering realities. Each day, they climbed hundreds of feet into the air, navigating narrow beams, and braving the elements. Despite the danger, they worked with a sense of pride, precision, and camaraderie, contributing to the city’s skyline one rivet at a time.

The identities of the eleven men in the photograph have long been the subject of speculation. Over the years, numerous claims have been made by individuals and families asserting their connection to the men on the beam. However, the identities of most of the men remain unverified. Two of the men were reportedly identified as Joseph Eckner and Joe Curtis in the third and fourth positions from the left, while the man on the far right is allegedly Gustáv (Gusti) Popovič from Slovakia.

The lack of definitive identification, however, does not detract from the photograph’s power. Each man’s face tells a story, their expressions a mixture of concentration, amusement, and nonchalance. They represent not just themselves, but every worker who risked life and limb to build the towering cityscape of New York.

Despite the anonymity of the men, or perhaps because of it, “Lunch atop a Skyscraper” is a tribute to all the anonymous workers who built, and continue to build, our cities. These men were ordinary people in extraordinary circumstances, their bravery and skill immortalized in a single, timeless image.

Photographer: Charles C. Ebbets

Charles Clyde Ebbets was an accomplished photographer whose career spanned the realms of sports, advertising, and, notably, construction photography. Born in Florida in 1905, Ebbets was an adventurous spirit who, before embarking on his photographic career, worked various jobs, including as a wrestler, a pilot, and a race car driver. He eventually became the official photographer for the Miami Daily News and later pursued freelance photography.

Ebbets’s work during the construction of the Rockefeller Center was a significant part of his career. His ability to capture the scale, drama, and human element of the construction process led to some of the most memorable images of the era, the most famous being “Lunch atop a Skyscraper.”

Despite the iconic status of the photograph, there has been controversy over its authorship. While Ebbets was indeed working at the site during the time, there were several other photographers also documenting the construction. For many years, the photograph was simply credited to “unknown.”

It wasn’t until the 2000s that the descendants of Ebbets began a campaign to attribute the photograph to him, based on their research and comparison with his other works. In 2003, the ownership of the photograph, the Bettmann Archive, agreed to attribute the photograph to Ebbets. However, some still dispute this and argue that the identity of the photographer remains uncertain.

Regardless of the ongoing debate, the significance of the photograph remains untouched. The ability of the photographer, whether Ebbets or someone else, to capture such a human, yet awe-inspiring moment amidst the industrial landscape of a city under construction, is a testament to their skill and vision. The legacy of “Lunch atop a Skyscraper” is not diminished by the uncertainty surrounding its authorship, but rather it adds another layer of intrigue to this iconic image.

Symbolism and Impact

“Lunch atop a Skyscraper” transcends its status as a mere photograph; it has become an emblem of an era, an enduring symbol of American resilience, ambition, and the spirit of progress. The image is a snapshot of a moment in time, yet it resonates deeply with broader themes of humanity’s indomitable spirit and the pursuit of progress.

In the context of the Great Depression, the photograph takes on a poignant significance. Despite the economic hardships of the era, these workers were forging ahead, quite literally building the future of New York. The image is a testament to the audacity and tenacity of the American worker, forging ahead undeterred by economic downturns or the physical dangers of their work.

The photo also symbolizes the transformation of New York City into a towering metropolis. The workers, perched high above the city, were not just constructing a building; they were actively shaping the city’s skyline, contributing to the architectural tapestry that would come to define New York as a city of skyscrapers.

Beyond the historical and local context, “Lunch atop a Skyscraper” embodies universal human themes. The camaraderie between the workers, their nonchalant bravery, and the juxtaposition of ordinary lunchtime routines in an extraordinary setting all contribute to the photograph’s enduring appeal.

The image is a poignant reminder of humanity’s capacity to adapt and thrive in even the most challenging environments. It’s a celebration of everyday heroism, a tribute to those who risk their lives in their line of work, and an ode to the collective effort that goes into building our cities and societies. It is a reminder that progress, whether in building a city or overcoming adversity, is often achieved through the collective effort of individuals, each contributing in their own way to a larger purpose.

In conclusion, the impact and symbolism of “Lunch atop a Skyscraper” extend far beyond the boundaries of the photograph itself. Its appeal lies in its timeless representation of human courage, resilience, and the relentless pursuit of progress. It is an image that continues to inspire and captivate, eight decades after it was first captured.


“Lunch atop a Skyscraper” is more than just a photograph; it’s a powerful narrative captured in a single frame. It takes us back to a significant moment in history when brave men, perched high above the city streets, were shaping the skyline of New York amidst the Great Depression. The iconic image, captured on the 69th floor of the RCA Building, is a testament to the audacity, resilience, and the spirit of progress that defined the era.

The photograph, attributed to Charles C. Ebbets, captures the extraordinary in the ordinary – men casually enjoying their lunch break in a setting that would make many a stomach churn. Despite the ongoing debate about the authorship of the photograph, its significance and impact remain undiminished.

The workers, their identities largely unknown, represent not just themselves but every worker who has risked life and limb to construct the cities we live in. Their bravery and skill, captured in this photograph, remind us of the human element in the concrete and steel structures that dominate our urban landscapes.

The image also serves as a symbol of New York City’s transformation into a towering metropolis, a city of skyscrapers that reach for the sky. It is a symbol of human resilience and ambition, captured during a time of economic hardship but unyielding progress.

Eight decades on, “Lunch atop a Skyscraper” continues to captivate audiences worldwide. Its timeless appeal lies in its ability to resonate with universal human themes – courage, camaraderie, and the pursuit of progress. It stands as a reminder of our collective strength and our capacity to rise above challenges, both literally and metaphorically.

In summary, “Lunch atop a Skyscraper” is not just an image but a piece of history, a symbol of human resilience, and a testament to the spirit of progress. It is a snapshot of a moment in time that continues to inspire, reminding us of the audacious spirit of those who build our cities and the enduring power of human resilience.


For those interested in delving deeper into the story behind “Lunch atop a Skyscraper” and the history of the Rockefeller Center, I recommend the following sources:

  1. “Men at Lunch” – This 2012 documentary dives deep into the photograph, the men it captures, and the world they lived in. It provides a comprehensive and engaging look at the history surrounding the image.
  2. Rockefeller Center: Art, History, and Architecture by Christine Roussel – A detailed guide to the Rockefeller Center, this book provides historical context, architectural insights, and a look at the art that adorns the iconic complex.
  3. “High Steel: The Daring Men Who Built the World’s Greatest Skyline” by Jim Rasenberger – This book offers an in-depth look at the lives of the ironworkers who built New York’s skyline.
  4. Charles C. Ebbets’s official website – Managed by his descendants, this website provides a wealth of information on Ebbets’s life and work, including his involvement with “Lunch atop a Skyscraper.”
  5. “Top of the Rock: Inside the Rise and Fall of Must See TV” by Warren Littlefield – This book offers a history of the Rockefeller Center and its significance in the television industry.
  6. The New York Times Archives – The Times has chronicled the construction of the Rockefeller Center and offers a wealth of articles from the period.

Remember that while the internet can be a great resource for information, it’s essential to critically evaluate sources for their credibility and accuracy. Always cross-reference information and consider the source’s reputation and expertise.